Polycystic kidney disease in adults is an inherited disease that is characterized by the formation and growth of multiple cysts in both kidneys and leads to the development of chronic renal failure. There are areas between the cysts with preserved renal tissue although the mechanism of disease development is still unclear. It is assumed that even in embryonic development, many of the glomerular tubules are formed defectively, the accumulated primary urine dilates them and cysts appear. The genetic frequency relative to the general population is 1 per 1000. It is assumed that various DNA mutations are the basis for the formation of polycystic kidney disease.
There are several types of the disease according to the specific gene defect. However, the most common is autosomal dominant renal polycystosis. It is one of the most common inherited kidney injuries, with approximately 10% of all patients reaching chronohemodialysis as a result.
The disease is initially asymptomatic. The symptoms begin to appear most often in the 30s and 40s of the patient’s life. The most common symptoms are:
• Pain and heaviness in the lumbar region;
• Presence of blood in the urine (haematuria);
• Kidney formation, which in some cases can reach significant sizes;
• Frequent and nocturnal urination
• In more severe conditions, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness may occur