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The renal nuclear scan is a diagnostic test and can be performed in several different ways using a radioactive indicator. It is used to diagnose suspected kidney problems and to assess their function. It is an extremely effective diagnostic tool because, in addition to showing their anatomy, it reveals how well they are functioning at the moment.

Radioisotope research is done by introducing a small amount of radioactive isotope into the body and monitoring its entry, accumulation and excretion by the kidneys. During the scan, the corresponding indicator is injected into a vein and monitored to and through the kidneys with special detectors. The process is monitored on a computer screen. The resulting images show the delivery of fluid to the kidneys through the bloodstream and the ability to excrete fluid from the kidneys through the ureters and bladder. The ability to analyze kidney function allows doctors to diagnose specific kidney diseases and problems much more accurately than with the possible standard imaging tests.

Reasons for conducting the test

– to assess renal function

– to see abnormalities in the size, shape and structure of the kidneys

– renal artery stenosis

– to monitor renal function after transplantation

– detect damage or obstruction in the ureters

– for diagnosis and evaluation of tumors, cysts or abscesses in the kidneys.

Scanning the kidneys is generally painless, but it is possible to experience mild discomfort. The patient can return to his daily activities immediately after the procedure. Redness and soreness at the injection site are possible side effects. Although radiation exposure is minimal, you should tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breast-feeding before undergoing the procedure.



pH is a scale that measures the alkaline and acidic properties of the aquatic environment and represents the ratio of positively charged hydrogen ions to negatively charged ones in a solution. This is one of the most important indicators of homeostasis in the body. Our body is made up mainly of water, and the environment we need to maintain is slightly alkaline – from 7.35 to 7.45.

The acid-base balance requires the cooperation of three main organs: the liver, kidneys and lungs.

The acidic environment is rich in protons, while the alkaline is rich in electrons. Electrons determine an oxygen-rich environment that provides the required amount of oxygen throughout the body and meets the needs of normal, aerobic cells.

Plasma buffer systems include plasma proteins, phosphate and bicarbonate, and carbon buffers. The kidneys help to control the acid-base balance by releasing hydrogen ions and generating bicarbonate, which helps keep blood plasma pH within normal limits.

With disturbed alkaline-acid balance with low pH values there are problems related to weight, allergies, arthritis, fungal infections, impaired metabolism, chronic fatigue and lack of energy, muscle pain, cramps.

The kidneys and lungs are the main factor in neutralizing the acid accumulation in our body. They help in the process of acid control and support the balance of the blood. Their main task is to neutralize sulfuric or uric acid through urination. As these or other acids increase, the kidneys increase their production of hydrogen ions to balance these processes.

Thanks to their work, our body has a filtering mechanism that removes acids from the bloodstream, eliminated through the urine. Proper kidney function is ensured by alkaline reserves or alkaline substances, which are desirable to be regularly provided to the body through an optimal diet.

Alkaline food intake helps to:

– Proper metabolism

– Digestion

– Energy depots are increasing

– Immunity



Potassium is a mineral and electrolyte that we need to maintain and regulate key processes in our body. It is one of the seven major macrominerals and plays an important role in kidney function. It is found in most of the foods we eat and is needed in our diet because it supports muscle movements, keeps the nervous system healthy and participates in the process of balancing the amount of water in the body. The amount of potassium in the blood is controlled by the kidneys. They remove excess potassium from the blood and excrete it in the urine, which process is reduced in patients with CKD.

Having too high or too low potassium levels can lead to complications that affect kidney function. In people with kidney disease, potassium levels can build up to higher levels. This is called hyperkalaemia and can be dangerous for the heart.

People with chronic kidney disease should limit the amount of potassium they consume, as their kidneys cannot process potassium properly and this leads to its accumulation in the blood. On the other hand, drugs used to treat CKD can also increase potassium levels.

It is recommended that healthy men and women over the age of 19 consume at least 3400 mg and 2600 mg of potassium per day, respectively. However, people with kidney disease who are on a potassium-restricted diet should usually keep their potassium intake below 2000 mg per day.

The optimal amount of potassium in the diet maintains and has a beneficial effect on the muscles that control heart rate and respiration.

Potassium restriction in the hemodialysis diet

Potassium-rich foods are limited for hemodialysis patients as potassium accumulates in the periods between dialysis treatments and can cause problems such as weakness, muscle cramps, fatigue, irregular heartbeat and heart problems.

Potassium is present mainly in fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Some fruits and vegetables are high in potassium and others are lower.

Foods that are low in potassium – meat, poultry, bread, pasta.

Potassium-free foods – butter, margarine and oils.